Latest News# Quantum Computing: Why is it Better Than Supercomputers?

Researchers in the US developed a new energy-based benchmark for quantum advantage and used it to demonstrate noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) computers that use several orders of magnitude less energy than the world's most powerful supercomputer. Quantum computing is a branch of computer science that focuses on the development of technologies based on quantum theory principles.

Quantum computing solves problems that are too complex for classical computing by utilizing the unique properties of quantum physics. The question of whether a quantum computer can perform calculations beyond the reach of even the most powerful conventional supercomputer is becoming increasingly relevant as quantum computers become larger and more reliable. This ability, dubbed "quantum supremacy," marks the transition of quantum computers from scientific curiosity to useful devices. Scientists predict that Quantum computing is better than supercomputers as it performs tasks a million times faster. Quantum computers can handle complex calculations easily because they are built based on quantum principles that go beyond classical physics.

Quantum computers and supercomputers are extremely powerful machines used for complex calculations, problem solving, and data analysis. While both have the potential to revolutionize computing technology, they have significant speed and capability differences. In 2019, Google's quantum computer performed a calculation that would take the world's most powerful computer 10,000 years to complete. It is the seed for the world's first fully functional quantum computer, which will be capable of producing better medicines, developing smarter artificial intelligence, and solving cosmic mysteries. Theoretical physicist John Preskill proposed a formulation of quantum supremacy, or the superiority of quantum computers, in 2012. He dubbed it the moment when quantum computers can perform tasks that ordinary computers cannot. To quickly crunch large amounts of data and achieve a single result, supercomputers employ a traditional computing approach with multiple processors. These computers have the highest raw computing power, but they can only handle one task at a time, and their processing capabilities are limited by Moore's Law, the principle that computer processor speeds double every two years. Quantum computers, on the other hand, use quantum mechanics principles to process data in ways that traditional computers cannot, resulting in significantly faster processing speeds. The normal laws of physics apply to supercomputers. The higher the number of processors, the faster the system. Quantum computers outperform supercomputers in terms of efficiency because they use the power of quantum mechanics to perform calculations. China claimed in 2020 to have developed a quantum computer capable of performing computations 100 trillion times faster than any supercomputer. They can handle multiple tasks at once and can quickly solve complex problems that would take a supercomputer months to solve. However, because quantum computers are extremely sensitive to temperature changes and must be isolated from outside influences, they require more maintenance than traditional computers. Despite the fact that in the noisy intermediate scale, or NISQ, era of machines, quantum computers and quantum-inspired algorithms can be useful for combinatorial challenges such as traffic pattern prediction, as well as cybersecurity and cryptography issues. However, for quantum computers to truly move away from the NISQ era and towards "quantum advantage," where better outcomes in verticals such as drug design, computational chemistry, financial modeling, and weather forecasting are predicted, several factors will need to change with the technology, including, but not limited to, the number of logical qubits within the system, drastically reducing decoherence times and improving error correction. While traditional computers handle data in binary 1s and 0s and can only switch between the two variables, quantum computing generates multidimensional spaces that can help us visualize how the patterns connecting individual data points form. So, instead of only dealing with 1 or 0, you are actually solving problems using a quantum algorithm, which can help find patterns and solutions in previously unimaginable ways. While traditional computers use bits to solve problems, quantum computers use qubits to run multidimensional quantum algorithms. Quantum computers outperform supercomputers in terms of speed and power. They can perform multiple computations at the same time, making them ideal for tackling complex problems requiring massive amounts of data to be processed quickly. Supercomputers can only work on one task at a time, but they can handle a wider range of tasks. When we compare them directly, however, it becomes a semantic point that quantum computers could be described as a subset of supercomputers. Quantum computers, like supercomputers, are expected to excel at a specific task rather than replacing our desktop computers and laptops. Indeed, they may require significant maintenance and carefully managed data centers in order to function.

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