New Career Unlock: What is Feature Engineering in Data Science

New Career Unlock: What is Feature Engineering in Data Science

Feature Engineering in Data Science – A guide

Feature Engineering is an excellent art that improves the representation of information in the quickest conceivable way. It involves a talented combination of subject information, intuition, and crucial scientific abilities. When you embrace engineering, you can change your information properties into information highlights. How you give your information to your algorithm should successfully signify the pertinent structures/properties of the fundamental information.

Feature engineering is the handling of pre-processing information so that your model/learning algorithm may spend as little time as conceivable filtering through the noise. Any data that is disconnected from learning or estimating concerning your last point is known as noise. Let's have a brief discussion about feature engineering in data science.

What is Feature Engineering

Feature engineering in data science is the technique of changing crude information into highlights that are reasonable for machine learning models. In other words, it is the process of selecting, extracting, and changing the most pertinent highlights from the accessible information to construct more precise and effective machine-learning models.

The success of machine learning models intensely depends on the quality of the highlights utilized to prepare them. Feature engineering includes a set of methods that empower us to make modern highlights by combining or changing the existing ones. These strategies help highlight the most vital designs and connections in the information, which in turn makes a difference in machine learning's ability to learn from the data more effectively.

In the concept of machine learning, a feature (also known as a variable or quality) is an individual quantifiable property or characteristic of an information point that is utilized as input for a machine learning algorithm. Highlights can be numerical, categorical, or text-based, and they represent diverse viewpoints of the information that are important to the issue at hand.

Feature Engineering in Data Science

While understanding the training information and the focused issue is a crucial portion of Feature Engineering in data science, in fact, there are no complex and quick rules as to how it is to be accomplished. The following feature engineering methods for data science are a must-know for all data scientists:


Imputation handles dealing with lost values in information. While erasing records that miss particular values is one way of managing this issue, it also seems to mean losing out on important information. This is where imputation can offer assistance. It can be classified into two types-

Categorical Imputation: Lost categorical factors are mainly supplanted by the most commonly happening esteem in other records.

Numerical Imputation: Lost numerical values are mainly supplanted by the means of the comparing esteem in other records.

However, one must be sensibly cautious when utilizing this strategy since maintenance of information estimates with this strategy may come at the fetched of deterioration of data quality. Utilizing the over strategy, you would anticipate the lost values as 'Sour Jelly,' conceivably predicting the high deals of Sour Jellies all through the year! Hence, it is wise to channel out records with more prominent than a certain number of missing information or fundamental values and apply your caution depending on the estimate and quality of the information you are working with.


Discretization includes taking a set of information values and gathering sets of them together coherently into bins (or buckets). Binning can apply to numerical values as well as to categorical information values. This could offer assistance to prevent information from overfitting, but it comes at the cost of misfortune regarding the granularity of data. The gathering of information can be done as follows in Feature engineering:

Grouping of break even with intervals

Grouping based on rise to frequencies (of perceptions in the bin)

Grouping based on choice tree sorting (to build up a relationship with the target)

Categorial Encoding

Categorical encoding is the procedure utilized to encode categorical highlights into numerical values, which are usually easier for an algorithm to understand. One hot encoding(OHE) is a prevalent strategy of categorical encoding. Here, categorical values are changed over into basic numerical 1's and 0's without losing data. As with other methods, OHE has drawbacks and must be utilized sparingly. It might significantly increment the number of highlights and result in profoundly related features.

Feature splitting

Splitting features into parts can sometimes move forward the esteem of the highlights toward the target to be learned. For instance, in this case, Date superior contributes to the target work than Date and Time.

Handling Outliers

Outliers are abnormally high or lowest values in the dataset, which are impossible to happen in typical scenarios. Since these exceptions seem to influence your expectations antagonistically, they must be handled suitably. The different strategies for taking care of exceptions include:

Removal: The records containing exceptions are expelled from the conveyance. However, the nearness of exceptions over different factors might result in losing out on an expansive parcel of the datasheet with this method.

Replacing values: The exceptions, on the other hand, seem to be treated as lost values and supplanted by utilizing fitting imputation.

Capping: Capping the greatest and least values and supplanting them with self-assertive esteem or esteem from a variable distribution.

Variable transformations

Variable transformation strategies offer assistance with normalizing skewed information. One such prevalently utilized transformation is the logarithmic change. Logarithmic changes compress the more significant numbers and moderately grow the smaller numbers, which results in less skewed values, particularly in the case of heavy-tailed conveyances. Other variable changes utilized incorporate Square root and Box-Cox changes, which generalize the previous two.


1. What is an example of feature engineering?

Feature engineering improves the performance of the machine learning model by selecting the right features for the model and preparing the features in a way that is suitable for the machine learning model. For example, if we would like to predict the price of a car, the target variable would be the Market Value.

2. What is feature engineering Python?

Feature engineering is the process of transforming selected features in a dataset to create certain patterns, provide insight, and improve understanding of the data.

3. What's the salary of Feature Engineering in 2024?

Senior-level positions, especially those involving project leadership or advanced technical expertise, can see salaries ranging from ₹8,00,000 to over ₹20,00,000 per annum. These figures, however, can vary significantly based on the employer, location, and the engineer's skill set.

4. What are the career opportunities in Feature Engineering?

There are numerous career opportunities in data engineering, including, feature engineering manager, Data engineer, data scientist, and Machine learning Engineer.

5. Is Feature Engineering the Right Career Path?

Yes, Feature engineering is the right path for individuals, as it provides numerous career opportunities in the present market. Individuals prefer this role because of the high packages in the companies.

Disclaimer: Analytics Insight does not provide financial advice or guidance. Also note that the cryptocurrencies mentioned/listed on the website could potentially be scams, i.e. designed to induce you to invest financial resources that may be lost forever and not be recoverable once investments are made. You are responsible for conducting your own research (DYOR) before making any investments. Read more here.

Related Stories

No stories found.
Analytics Insight