Quantum Mechanics created their chapter in the history of the early 20th Century. With its regular binary computing twin going out of style, quantum mechanics led quantum computing to be the new belle of the ball! While the memory used in a classical computer encodes binary ‘bits’ – one and zero, quantum computers use qubits (quantum bits). And Qubit is not confined to a two-state solution, but can also exist in superposition i.e., qubits can be employed at 0, 1 and both 1 and 0 at the same time.
Hence it can perform many calculations in parallel owing to the ability to pursue simultaneous probabilities through superposition along with manipulating them with magnetic fields. Its’ coefficients allow predicting how much zero-ness and one-ness it has, are complex numbers, which indicates the real and imaginary part. This provides a huge technical edge over other conventional computing. The beauty of this is if you have n qubits, you can have a superposition of 2n states or bits of information simultaneously.
Another magic up its sleeve is that Qubits are capable of pairing which is referred to as entanglement. Here, the state of one qubit cannot be described independently of the state of the others which allows instantaneous communication.
To quote American theoretical physicist, John Wheeler, “If you are not completely confused by quantum mechanics, you do not understand it”. So, without a doubt it is safe to say that even quantum computing has few pitfalls. First, the qubits tend to loss the information they contain, and also lose their entanglement in other words, decoherence. Second, imperfections of quantum rotations. These led to a loss of information within a few microsecond.
Ultimately, quantum computing is the Trump Card as promises to be a disruptive technology with such dramatic speed improvements. This will enable systems to solve complex higher-order mathematical problems that earlier took months to be computed, investigate material properties, design new ones, study superconductivity, aid in drug discovery via simulation and understanding new chemical reactions.
This quantum shift in the history of computer sciences can also pave way for encrypted communication (as keys cannot be copied nor hacked), much better than Blockchain technology, provide improved designs for solar panels, predict financial markets, big data mining, develop Artificial Intelligence to new heights, enhanced meteorological updates and a much-anticipated age of quantum internet. According to scientists, Future advancements can also lead to help find a cure for Alzheimer’s.
The ownership and effective employment of a quantum computer could change the political and technological dynamics of the world. Computing power, in the end, is power – whether it is personal, national or globally strategic. In short, a quantum computer could be an existential threat to a nation that hasn’t got one. At the moment Google, IBM, Intel, and D-Wave are pursuing this technology. While there are scientific minds who don’t believe in the potential of quantum computing yet unless you are a time-traveler like Marty McFly in Back to the Future series or any one of the Doctor Who, one cannot say what future beholds.